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ALSNews Features
MAESTRO Beamline Set to Open to Users Print

It was 10 years ago that ALS Senior Staff Scientist Eli Rotenberg devised the name Microscopic and Electronic STRucture Observatory, or MAESTRO, for his long-envisioned beamline dedicated to the determination of the electronic structure of materials at the mesoscopic length scale. This September, the beamline, 7.0.2, will accept general user proposals for the first time, offering researchers unparalleled opportunities for studying the correlation between structure and electronic properties.

MAESTRO’s unique attributes combine strong sample preparation capabilities with cutting-edge spectromicroscopy tools. Sample preparation is done at the beamline itself in one of three sample preparation chambers. The first is molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), with capabilities that rival those of dedicated laboratories not connected to a synchrotron. The second is pulsed laser deposition (PLD), typically used for oxides like high-Tc superconductors. The third sample preparation area is simple, but essential—an atmosphere-controlled glovebox. All of the chambers offer the critical ability to prepare clean, highly crystalline samples in a non-reactive environment, then move them into a beamline endstation for analysis without them ever leaving the beamline enclosure.

MAESTRO beamline scientists and visiting fellows watch intently as they receive the first images from the PEEM endstation. Pictured (L to R): Roland Koch, Eli Rotenberg, Daniel Schwarz, Chris Joswiak, and Aaron Bostwick.

The beamline provides three ARPES (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) endstations, each with different strengths. MicroARPES allows the best energy resolution and lowest sample temperatures (down to 12 K) among them, but at the expense of spatial resolution, which is limited to ~10 μm. The second endstation offers photoemission electron microscopy, or PEEM, which illuminates a large region of the sample to perform full-field electron microscopy on it. Although PEEM is relatively easy and quick and offers a spatial resolution of 30 nm, a sample grain has to be at least 3 μm to perform a spatially selected ARPES measurement.

The third endstation, featuring nanoARPES, is still undergoing testing but will eventually offer the best spatial resolution of the endstations at 50 nm. In the future, Rotenberg says the resolution may get better, particularly if the proposed ALS upgrade (ALS-U) comes to fruition. “With ALS-U we could probably get to 25 nm easily, and with other tricks we could eventually get down to 5 nm.” The drawbacks of nanoARPES are a low count rate (at least 100 times worse than with microARPES) and the potential for sample damage from high energy densities.

The endstation complex, designed by Geoff Gaines, Aaron Bostwick, Chris Jozwiak, and Rotenberg, is linked by an elaborate, automated sample transfer highway called MART—MAESTRO Area Rapid Transit. MART is a sample "railway" with custom robotics for automated transfer of samples in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment. Like commuter train systems, traffic congestion is reduced by providing dual tracks and plenty of in-vacuum storage slots—nearly 300 samples can be stored in UHV and directed to where they are needed. The commissioning of MART and the endstations began last fall and has been carried out with visiting postdoctoral fellows Daniel Schwartz, Soren Ulstrum, Roland Koch, Hyang Keun Yoo, Luca Moreschini, and Simon Moser.

Schematic layout of Beamline 7.0.2, MAESTRO.

The unique capability of automated transfer among multiple sample preparation chambers and multiple synchrotron endstations opens up a wide range of possible experiments. “We’ll have the ability to prepare a surface that’s atomically precise in the MBE chamber, then you could bring that sample to the glovebox and exfoliate a sensitive material onto it. You could even imagine depositing atoms on top of that and coming back to the glovebox to lay something else down on it,” described Rotenberg. “There are bits and pieces [of the beamline] that have similar qualities to other instruments around the world, but there’s no other beamline that has everything in one place,” said Rotenberg. “It allows us to tackle harder problems.” Among those could be synthesizing and measuring sandwiches and heterostructures with high atomic precision or exotic materials like high-Tc cuprates made of a single superconducting layer.

In terms of user access, there are opportunities and challenges to the beamline’s many offerings. On one hand, there are multiple chambers for sample growth, all of which could be occupied by different groups at once. Preparing a sample in the MBE chamber might take a group two weeks, but with PLD, more than one sample could be grown in a day. The glovebox offers even more flexibility. With so many variables in play, it can be difficult to determine well in advance when a sample might be ready for beam time. That's a primary advantage of the sample storage system—the samples can staged for analysis without ever exposing them to the atmosphere.

Although the beamline will accept proposals from general users beginning with the upcoming September 7 deadline, a significant fraction of beam time will be reserved for rapid access (RAPIDD) proposals and continued beamline optimization. General user applicants for beam time and those interested in using the sample preparation chambers should This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it before submitting a proposal.

 
ALS Holds Annual Safety Day Print

by Scott Taylor, ALS Safety Manager

Andrew Doran cleans equipment housing at Beamline 12.2.2.

The ALS held its annual safety day on Monday, June 13 for all ALS and associated staff. The day started with an all-hands meeting, beginning with presentations by ALS Director Roger Falcone and LBNL Environmental Health and Safety Division Director (and former ALS Safety Manager) Jim Floyd. Both discussed the importance of the incorporation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into daily planning, and the responsibility of the individual for their safety and the safety of their co-workers.

Ingrid Hallsteinsen red-tags electronics at Beamline 4.0.2.

The theme of the day centered on electrical safety. In addition to comments by Falcone and Floyd, Operations Manager Jerry Kekos emphasized safety in the office space. The scientific staff remained at the meeting to discuss safety on the beamlines, with talks by Doug Taube (chemical safety), Bob Mueller (electrical safety), Bruce Rude (bake-out procedures), and Scott Taylor (work authorizations).

After lunch, the scientists returned to the ALS floor, where they conducted electrical inspections of their own beamlines, followed by inspections of their colleagues’ beamlines. Questionable items were tagged by the beamline staff for further inspection by the ALS electrical technicians and electricians.

 
ALS-U Update: BESAC Announces Results of Facility Upgrade Prioritization Print

by Dave Robin, on behalf of the ALS-U Project Development Team

On Thursday, June 9, DOE’s Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) released the recommendations of the BES Facility Upgrade Prioritization Subcommittee. I’m pleased to announce that the subcommittee (whose full report can be found here) considers the proposed ALS-U project “absolutely central” to contribute to world leading science and “ready to initiate construction”—the highest possible ratings.

In a December 21, 2015 letter, Director of the DOE Office of Science (SC) Cherry Murray asked BESAC to provide an update of its assessment of the proposed upgrades to x-ray scattering facilities and to the Spallation Neutron Source using the same criteria that were used in prior studies—“the ability of a proposed upgrade or construction project to contribute to world leading science and the readiness of the upgrade or construction project to proceed to construction.”

The five proposed facility upgrade projects included in the assessment were: the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APS-U); the Advanced Light Source Upgrade (ALS-U); the Linac Coherent Light Source II High Energy Upgrade (LCLS-II-HE); the Proton Power Upgrade (PPU) at the Spallation Neutron Source; and the Second Target Station (STS) at the Spallation Neutron Source.

The report acknowledges that “the Office of Basic Energy Sciences’ (BES) x-ray and neutron user facilities play an ever increasingly critical role for fundamental discovery science and innovation,” and that, due to international investments in new facilities that will compete with US science and technology, “Without the planned upgrades the APS and the ALS will soon be relegated as second tier facilities.”

Comparison of the ALS accelerator complex as it exists today (left) with the upgraded ALS (right). (A) Plan views of the tunnel and rings. (B) A sector inside the tunnel. The bottom right-hand image shows the accumulator ring to the left (inside) of the storage ring.

Under the ALS-U proposal, the existing ALS storage ring would be replaced with powerful new compact magnets arranged in a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice. This new lattice, in combination with other improvements to the electron accelerator, would reduce the electron beam emittance and dramatically increase the transverse x-ray coherence, producing up to 1000 times more soft x-ray coherent flux than today’s ALS—well beyond that of any ring-based light source in operation, under construction, or planned. The resulting stable, nearly continuous-wave, highly coherent, soft x-ray beams would enable important new types of scientific inquiry by allowing us to resolve nanometer-scale features and interactions, and follow real-time kinetics, revealing the nature of chemical transformations and the origin of the functional behavior of complex materials.

With regards to ALS-U, the report specifically highlighted the ability of an MBA lattice upgrade (now successfully demonstrated by MAX IV) to result in a truly coherent soft x-ray source that will allow the ALS to remain the world leading facility in this area of science for the foreseeable future. In addition, the subcommittee commented on the novel “swap-out” injection that will be employed by both APS-U and ALS-U and will enable a leap in performance over other international MBA designs.

The report also noted the “historically strong coupling between the experiments at the ALS and the computational and theoretical science community” and encouraged ALS management to “enhance their outreach efforts to engage the user community in the design and planning for the ALS-U project and the associated beam line upgrades.” Actively involving our user community in the project as it develops is critical, and we look forward to valuable input.

The outcome of the BESAC prioritization is the direct result of our expert staff and engaged user community. Through support from Berkeley Lab and more recently from BES, staff members in the Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics (ATAP), Engineering, and ALS Divisions have invested more than three years of R&D to develop the ALS-U concept. The ALS-U initiative has received tremendous support across the lab, and Berkeley Lab Director Mike Witherell has stated that ALS-U is the laboratory’s highest priority project. I could not imagine a stronger or more enthusiastic team. I’m hopeful that the subcommittee’s recommendation will bring us one step closer to a mission need approval (CD-0) for this proposed project and put us on the path towards upgrading the ALS, providing revolutionary light source capabilities to our user community and ensuring continued US leadership in soft x-ray science.

 
Synchrotron Science at the AAAS Annual Meeting Print

 

Light sources took center stage at several sessions at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2016 Annual Meeting in Washington, DC. The meeting's theme of Global Science Engagement lent itself well to the inherently collaborative nature of synchrotron science, which was featured in the following sessions.

 

SESAME: A Scientific Source of Light in the Middle East

SESAME light source.

The third-generation, 2.5-GeV SESAME light source, under construction in Amman, Jordan, is slated to begin commissioning later this year. Introductory remarks by Chris Llewellyn Smith (University of Cambridge), president of the SESAME Council, highlighted the opportunities the project presents for international collaboration and peace building, particularly among its nine Middle Eastern member countries, as well as ongoing challenges SESAME will have to overcome to be successful, including access to solar power to combat rising energy costs. Earlier this month SESAME celebrated the installation of the first of sixteen cells in its storage ring. The session also included talks by SESAME Council Vice President Eliezer Rabinovici (Hebrew University), who discussed the peace-building prospects in more detail; SESAME Scientific Advisory Committee Chair Zehra Sayers (Sabanci University), who detailed the current status of planning for up to 30 beamlines; and SESAME Beamline Scientist Gihan Kamel, who discussed SESAME’s infrared spectroscopy and microspectroscopy beamline, EMIRA.

 

Cleaner Energy Solutions: What Can 21st Century Large-Scale Physics Deliver?

Anke Kaysser-Pyzalla (Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin) provided an overview of the importance of synchrotron radiation for driving advances in new energy-relevant materials. After highlighting key capabilities synchrotron radiation provides, including identification of elements and chemical states, electronic and magnetic state selectivity, structural selectivity, and temporal sensitivity, she gave specific examples of how synchrotron science is informing organic electronics, perovskite solar cells, gas storage, and battery research. Claire Corkhill (University of Sheffield) discussed the world’s first long-duration x-ray synchrotron experiment, being performed at the UK’s Diamond Light Source. Corkhill’s research investigates changes in cement chemistry and microstructure for nuclear waste immobilization applications. By taking diffraction patterns of the cement every two weeks for two years, she hopes to inform the design of a new cement that will improve the option for geological disposal of the world’s hundreds of thousands of tons (and growing) of radioactive waste material.


Iran: Science Cooperation in a Post-Sanctions Era

Javad Rahighi, director of the Iranian Light Source Facility, provided an update on the plans for Iran’s largest-ever basic science project. The 3-GeV synchrotron is due to start construction in the coming months in Qazvin, just west of Tehran, and is projected to be operational by 2025. Rahighi highlighted the opportunities provided by the July 2015 nuclear agreement between the world powers and Iran. In the post-sanctions era, Iranian scientists have an easier time traveling abroad and sending their students to learn abroad, and the sophisticated scientific equipment necessary to build a light source facility is easier to obtain. In addition, Rahighi is hopeful that better scientific opportunities at home will help combat “brain drain,” keeping Iranian scientists in Iran.

 

Citizen Science and Information Technology: Engaging People for a Better Planet

Carla Gomes, professor of computer science and director of the Institute for Computational Sustainability at Cornell University, reported on the integration of citizen science data (crowdsourced information) with advanced computational techniques to accelerate the interpretation of synchrotron-derived x-ray diffraction data. Gomes used the superior pattern recognition capabilities of citizen scientists to inform computational algorithms programmed to solve the crystal structures of hundreds of points along a ternary thin film composition spread. The data collected from the UDiscoverIt graphical user interface for providing human input to the solving algorithm enabled a significant reduction in the amount of time to solve the crystal structures compared with humans or computers alone. Gomes believes human computation will dramatically speed up the performance of combinatorial optimization methods, accelerating sustainable energy materials discovery.

 
ALS Biosciences Crosscutting Review Print

by Steve Kevan and Corie Ralston

 

The ALS organized and recently held a two-day crosscutting review of its bioscience programs. The ALS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) sponsors these reviews, which are intended to evaluate the performance of entire research subdisciplines served by the facility and to motivate strategic thinking about capabilities and research directions that are ripe for future development. SAC member Janet Smith from the University of Michigan chaired the review, and other committee members were Mark Tobin from the Australian Synchrotron, Scott Fraser from University of Southern California, Wayne Hendrickson from Columbia University, and Thomas Weiss from SLAC.

Biosciences beamlines at the ALS.

Research areas covered by the review included macromolecular crystallography and solution scattering, cellular nano-tomography, and infrared microscopy. Talks by staff and 1-2 users of all beamlines in these areas were followed by ample time for discussion. There was also a poster session, at which additional current and planned research and capabilities were presented. An important underlying topic of discussion throughout the review was the planned ALS upgrade for ultrahigh brightness and how it will impact biosciences at the ALS. Overall, the review committee was very pleased by what they saw and provided valuable advice concerning the current ALS bioscience programs and how they might evolve in the future. The committee emphasized the importance of the GEMINI protein micro-crystallography beamline, scheduled for commissioning in 2018 and funded by both the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and industry, and suggested ongoing communication and planning for the ALS bioscience program on ALS-U.

The ALS aims to conduct two programmatic reviews each year and always seeks active user engagement in the planning and execution of these reviews.

 
Call for General User Proposals - Upcoming Deadline Print

 

The User Office is accepting new General User Proposals (GUPs) from scientists who wish to conduct research at the ALS in the 2016-2 July-Dec cycle.

 

PROPOSAL SUBMISSION DEADLINE: March 2, 2016


Please log in to ALSHub to submit a new GUP or to make a Beam Time Request (BTR) on an existing active proposal.

Users are reminded that they need to have an ALSHub account to submit proposals, and that creating an account may take 1-2 business days. We encourage all users to check their account well before the proposal deadline.

 

New Proposals

For more information about how to apply for beam time and proposal writing guidelines, follow the link to Apply for Beamtime in the User Guide.

 

Maintaining an Active Proposal

Proposals for general sciences beamlines are considered active for two years or until the total shifts requested in the proposal have been used. Users may decide whether to submit a new proposal or make a BTR on an active proposal based on the cutoff score for that beamline. Users are reminded that their proposal score may be improved if it fell below the cutoff in the first cycle, as described on GUP web pages.

 

RAPIDD Proposals

Users requiring limited but rapid access to ALS beam time may prefer to submit a RAPIDD proposal rather than a GUP. RAPIDD proposals may be submitted at any time. The system includes:

  • Rapid access to structural biology beamlines
  • Rapid access to some general user beamlines (7.3.3, 8.3.2, and 11.3.1 currently; 7.0.2 Maestro is coming soon)
  • Industry proposals on most ALS-run beamlines
  • Director's discretionary beam time on most ALS-run beamlines

 

Productivity and Past Publications

All proposal forms include a productivity section with publications from previous ALS work. The publications will be pre-filled automatically from the ALS publication database by searching for the principal investigator's name. Submission of publications is via the LBNL reporting system and is now much quicker and easier, based on entering the publication’s DOI. ALS users need to choose the correct entry on the right-hand side list to input publications:

  • LBNL staff should login with their Berkeley Lab Identity
  • ALS users who are not staff should use the ALS User input

A full description of the new system may be found here. Please make sure your publications are entered into our database, and be sure to select your group’s publication when submitting your proposal.

 
ALS "Workhorse" Endstation Retires after 22 Years of Service Print

 

Following a career spanning over two decades, ALS endstation 8.0.1.1 retired last October. The endstation, which specializes in soft x-ray fluorescence, is one of many hosted by Beamline 8.0.1 and has been known as a “workhorse” for the more than 450 peer-reviewed publications to its credit.

Endstation 8.0.1.1 during its heyday, pictured (from left) with scientists
Lin-Wang Wang, Gao Liu, and Wanli Yang. Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt

Its replacement will offer the same techniques—x-ray absorption and x-ray emission spectroscopy—as its retired counterpart but with higher resolution and detection efficiency. “It’s a completely new type of emission spectrometer compared with the previous retired one,” says ALS Beamline Scientist Wanli Yang. “In particular, the new spectrometer is optimized for very high efficiency RIXS [resonant inelastic x-ray scattering].” Thanks to the expertise of ALS scientists Jinghua Guo and Yi-De Chuang, the new system also features options for in situ sample environments that are well suited for studying energy-related devices, like batteries, fuel cells, and catalytic materials, as well as improved resolution and upgraded optics.

Although the distinction of “first light” at the ALS went to endstation 10.3.1 on October 5, 1993, endstation 8.0.1.1 may have been the first ALS experimental system cataloged. Affixed to its frame was a tag with the experiment number “93-002,” from when the endstation was commissioned by Tom Callcott and his group. The ALS experiment database shows endstation 10.3.1 as “93-003.” According to ALS Safety Experiment Coordinator David Malone, there is no record of a “93-001.”

Endstation 8.0.1.1's experiment number tag.

What happens to a retired ALS endstation? The first priority is to redeploy its components at the Lab, including at other ALS endstations. For example, ALS users Clemens Heske and Monika Blum of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas plan to use the old x-ray spectrometer on a roll-up endstation dedicated to x-ray emission. Although the spectrometer’s resolution and efficiency are lower than the new spectrometer, “It’s still a working x-ray emission spectrometer, and for many purposes it’s still useful,” says Yang.

Endstation 8.0.1.1 leaves the ALS in search
of new adventures.

Once ALS users have staked their claims, the parts are offered to other divisions at Berkeley Lab through Procurement and Property Management’s Excess Services. Todd Anderson, the Lab’s excess and off-site storage lead, then posts any remaining components in the federal government’s General Services Administration GSAXcess® database, where federal agencies and registered state and local entities can search for potentially useful property. Anything left at the end of the process is listed by the Lab for public sale bid. “A lot of artists actually like these salvaged parts,” explains Anderson. Components not destined for another facility, project, or piece of art, find new life in other forms through recycling. Almost nothing is sent to the landfill.

While the old endstation 8.0.1.1 components await news of their fates, the new endstation is being tuned and calibrated. Yang expects it to be available to users in February 2016.

 
ALS Director's Update 2016: Reflections on Our Past, Present, and Future Print

 

We entered the new year on a very positive note with the passage of a federal budget for fiscal year 2016 that will provide a modest increase in funding for ALS operations. Another exciting outcome of the budget process was that Congress provided additional funding this year for research and development for the ALS upgrade, ALS-U. We are in the early stages of discussing this potential project with DOE, and in February we will make a presentation to the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) to help gain the support of this very important advisory group. I am very pleased to see gathering momentum for the exciting idea of increasing the brightness of ALS by a thousand times and for all of the new science we will be able to do.

Our new lab director, Mike Witherell, was recently named by the University of California Board of Regents. He is currently the vice chancellor for research at the University of California, Santa Barbara and knows DOE well as he is a former director of Fermilab. Mike will make several visits to LBNL before his starting date of March 1 and has already told me of his strong interest in and support for ALS-U.

ALS Director Roger Falcone takes new LBNL Lab Director Mike Witherell on a tour of the ALS.

Our productivity at ALS continues to be excellent, with continued growth in the number of annual users (now about 2,500) and publications (about 900). We are as busy as ever adding to our scientific capabilities, with many beamline projects nearing completion (e.g., MAESTRO, our photoemission nanoprobe) or under full steam (QERLIN, for inelastic scattering, and AMBER, for renewable energy science). Our partners have generously invested resources to help us complete these and other projects. Those partners include the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Pacific Northwest National Lab, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, among many other institutions that are interested in supporting our science and technologies. Our partnerships with all of the Lab’s divisions have never been stronger in jointly supporting existing beamlines and growing new activities. Our new instruments are also well aligned with the science goals for the next decade as outlined in the new DOE BES report, Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy. Our new instruments are also poised to take full advantage of a future ALS-U.

I am well aware of the need to increase our staffing, both in certain areas of engineering as we increase our effort on ALS-U and work to complete all our beamline projects within the next two to three years, and to support user science at our beamlines. Our plans for new instruments and an upgrade of our facility are very important and exciting, but we need to be realistic about demands on our existing staff’s time. I am working with other divisions at the Lab and our other partners to make sure we get as much support as possible.

We are also beginning to prepare for our next triennial review by DOE, which will take place in spring 2017. These reviews are critical for our future, as we get important feedback on our operations from our sponsors. I am pleased to have the excellent help of our new communications director, Ashley White, who is always available to assist folks throughout the ALS community in creating the right messages for explaining what we do and why we do it!

I am very confident that we are succeeding in our mission, exceeding expectations in providing critical resources to the nation, and supporting users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment. For that success, I want to thank both our exceptional staff and our terrific user community!

 
Notification of General User Proposal and Approved Program Results Print

by Sue Bailey, User Services Group Leader


The Proposal Study Panel (PSP) met on October 23 to oversee and finalize the scoring of General User Proposals for the 2016-1 Feb-June operating cycle and to make recommendations to the ALS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) on Approved Program applications. Beam time allocations are completed and users have been notified to view the results by logging in to ALSHub.

Users will need to click on the Experiment ID to view the reviewer comments and to track the beamtime allocated. An example of what you will see is shown below.

Staff in the user office are available throughout this process to answer user queries and help you. Do not hesitate to contact us for advice. If there is no User Agreement in place, please contact user office staff as soon as possible.

 
2015 Director's Awards Print

 

ALS staff took top honors in Lawrence Berkeley National Lab's 2015 Director's Awards for Exceptional Achievement and were recognized in a ceremony earlier this month. The ALS recipients comprised nearly half of this year's awardees, receiving recognition in the scientific, early scientific career, and safety categories. The Director's Awards honor individuals in both the scientific and operations divisions for their high achievement, leadership, collaboration, participation in or support of multidisciplinary science, cross-divisional projects, and commitment to excellence in advancing the Lab's mission and strategic goals.

Clockwise, from top left: Christoph Steier and Arnaud Madur were presented their award by Don DePaolo, Associate Lab Director for Energy Sciences; David Kilcoyne, Rich Celestre, Stefano Marchesini, Tolek Tyliszczak, Tony Warwick, Lee Yang, and David Shapiro (not pictured) were presented their award by James Symons, Associate Lab Director for Physical Sciences; Scott Taylor was presented his award by Glenn Kubiak, Associate Lab Director for Operations and Chief Operating Officer; and Cheng Wang, Eric Schaible, and Alexander Hexemer (not pictured) were presented their award by Kathy Yelick, Associate Lab Director for Computing Sciences. Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt

The Director's Award for Exceptional Scientific Achievement went to two ALS teams:

  • The ALS Brightness Upgrade Team of Christoph Steier and Arnaud Madur, who led the largest improvement of the ALS storage ring since the facility was built in 1993. The brightness improvement enables experiments at the ALS to be done more quickly and with better spatial and spectral resolution.
  • The Development of X-Ray Microscopy at World Record Resolution Team of Rich Celestre, David Kilcoyne, Stefano Marchesini, David Shapiro, Tolek Tyliszczak, Tony Warwick, and Lee Yang, who achieved 3 nm resolution by building a new microscope based on a novel mode of operation called ptychography. This capability is an important tool for energy sciences, as shown in initial work on lithium iron phosphate batteries.

The ALS SAXS-WAXS Team of Alexander Hexemer, Eric Schaible, and Cheng Wang received a Director's Award for Exceptional Early Scientific Career Achievement for building a new beamline devoted to the study of nanoscale systems and developing it into the most productive SAXS-WAXS facility worldwide.

Scott Taylor was honored with the Director's Award for Exceptional Safety Achievement for achieving significant advances in the Lab's safety culture by working to increase the alignment between effective Employee Health and Safety programs and the performance of groundbreaking science.

 
2015 ALS User Meeting Highlights Print

 

The 2015 User Meeting brought together 405 ALS users from around the world, many of whom shared insights and sparked discussion with presentations of their ALS research highlights. UEC Chair Chris Cappa launched the meeting with a welcome, followed by another from Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos. Speaking of the vitality and community that’s key to the ALS, Alivisatos also touched on how the ALS could be utilized and optimized with a high coherence upgrade. ALS Director Roger Falcone outlined short-term and long-term planning for the ALS, with ongoing efforts to develop new beamlines and capabilities within the next three years and longer-term.

DOE Associate Director of Science for Basic Energy Science (BES), Dr. Harriet Kung, delivered a Washington update, beginning with an acknowledgement that science funding remains challenging, with 2015 marking the third consecutive year that funding has been below request. “We are hoping to rally support to turn the tide around,” Kung said, and encouraged users to get in touch with their elected representatives and express the importance of user facilities and basic research. Kung summarized BES research on future light sources with the statement: “Diffraction-based light sources are the future, and the U.S. has to make an investment.”

The first scientific speaker of the morning, Stanford University’s Gordon Brown, spoke about x-ray spectroscopic, scattering, and imaging studies of earth materials and processes. Brown and his team have used STXM techniques at the ALS to determine various soil characteristics to inform their research on abiotic and biotic crustal nucleation and growth. Brown’s research has also focused on the important role of iron hydroxide nanoparticles in the environment, and their STXM images from the ALS have shown the properties of the iron distribution and organic carbon in mine drainage samples.

John Turner, from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was up next with a lively presentation about semiconductor systems and catalysis for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. In the search for sustainable paths to hydrogen for fuel, ammonia, and energy storage, economics are the final determination, says Turner, and the cost of hydrogen is mainly determined by the cost of electricity. Turner has focused his research on molecular catalysts for PEC water splitting, in an effort to build higher-efficiency water splitting devices.

Hewlett Packard Research Scientist Stan Williams spoke about the future of transistors and the search for higher resolution in energy, space, and time. He and his research team have turned to the human brain for clues, which has led them to the memristor. The fourth basic circuit element, the memristor (short for “memory resistor”) joins the other passive elements to create a device with the ability to “remember” changes even when it loses power. Williams expressed that the most important thing he and his team bring to HP and the industry at large is modeling. “High quality models enable our circuit designers to actually design accurate circuits,” he says. Williams uses STXM at the ALS to investigate nanodevices, and they need the best possible energy resolution to do this. “Our research at the ALS has led to fundamental materials understanding,” he says.

Longtime ALS user Chuck Fadley, a UC Davis physicist, was up next with a presentation about x-ray optics and the study of buried solid/liquid (and solid/solid) interfaces. Fadley began with the all-important question of what’s happening at the interface, which he says drives a lot of his group’s research. Fadley uses the ambient pressure photoemission capabilities of the ALS to examine molecular-level structures, tuning to special resonant conditions to improve depth selectivity.

UC Berkeley’s Ting Xu spoke about deciphering hierarchical assemblies in supramolecular nanocomposites. Her research is focused on metamaterials, with a top-down engineering approach. Engineering supramolecular nanocomposites gives rise to materials with tailored mechanical, electrical, and optical properties for energy harvesting, storage, microelectronics, memory storage, sub-10-nm lithography, and light management.

ALS staff updates included User Services Group Leader Sue Bailey, who gave an overview of the new publication reporting system and the updated ALS experiment safety process. David Robin, head of the ALS Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD), reviewed accelerator, instrumentation, and controls upgrades.

The afternoon concluded with the ever-popular ALS Student Poster Slam, which gives recognition to significant student research conducted at the ALS. Students presented their posters on a wide variety of topics, with first prize going to Gregory Su, from UC Santa Barbara, for his poster "Phase Separated Polymer Blends for Organic Memory." Su gave a talk about his research the following morning, which focuses on using polymers and polymer blends for organic memory.

Tuesday morning began with a talk from Sherry Chen, from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, about studying reversible phase transformations by synchrotron x-ray Laue microdiffraction. Chen uses Beamline 12.3.2 to study unique microstructures, with the critical issue being functional degradation. The applications for research about these microstructures include medical devices and microelectronics devices.

This year’s Shirley Award winner, Beamline 8 staff scientist Wanli Yang, spoke about his research using soft x-ray spectrocscopy to study alkaline-based battery materials. The effort to improve batteries to meet growing energy needs requires a better understanding of their characteristics. “Battery research has a different focus depending on end use,” says Yang. “So we need different parameters of imaging.” Soft x-rays detect the key electron states that define the electronic properties of batteries, says Yang, and yet his research is still in the early stage of discovering how it can benefit the battery industry.

The Molecular Foundry’s David Prendergast, a computational physicist who often works with ALS users who are doing collaborative research at the two user facilities, spoke about understanding working interfaces at the nanoscale. “In-situ techniques are really useful to provide a unique insight on material system functionality,” says Prendergast. “But difficult theoretical problems remain.”


Alexander Laskin, from Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL), gave a talk about the discovery of unique atmospheric solid particles through chemical imaging. Using synchrotron techniques, researchers can assess particle types in the atmosphere and determine how they are formed and how they change. Laskin’s work also focuses on monitoring atmospheric aging and the atmospheric chemistry of aerosols.

Ilya Belopolski, a Princeton University physics graduate student in Zahid Hasan’s group, gave the final talk of the day, about the discovery of Weyl fermion and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in condensed matter systems.

The second day of the 2015 User Meeting concluded with the annual awards dinner.

The Klaus Halbach Award for Innovative Instrumentation at the ALS was awarded to Hans Bechtel, Michael Martin, and Markus Raschke for the development of Synchrotron Infrared Nano Spectroscopy (SINS). The Tim Renner User Services Award was awarded to David Malone for his efforts to ensure users’ experiments run safely. The two were joined by Shirley Award winner Yang and Student Award winner Su.

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