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Spectroscopy Print

In spectroscopy experiments, a sample is illuminated with light and the various product particles (electrons, ions, or fluorescent photons) are detected and analyzed.The unifying feature is that some "property" of a material is measured as the x-ray (photon) energy is swept though a range of values. At the most basic level, one measures the absorption, transmission, or reflectivity of a sample as a function of photon energy.

Probes that use the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum (10–100 eV) are very well matched to the elucidation of bonding in solids, surfaces, and molecules; to the investigation of electron–electron correlations in solids, atoms, and ions; and to the study of reaction pathways in chemical dynamics. At the lowest end of this energy range (below 1 eV) we have infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz spectroscopies, which are well matched to vibrational modes and other modes of excitation.

Soft x-ray spectroscopies employ the excitation of electrons in relatively shallow core levels (100–2000 eV) to probe the electronic structure of various kinds of matter. Elemental specificity is the watchword for this kind of spectroscopy. Each element has its own set of core levels that occur at characteristic energies. The photon-energy tunability of synchrotron radiation is essential.

Hard x-ray spectroscopy is applied in a wide variety of scientific disciplines (physics, chemistry, life sciences, and geology) to investigate geometric and electronic structure. The method is element-, oxidation-state-, and symmetry-specific. It is a primary tool in the characterization of new and promising materials. It is also used in the elucidation of dilute chemical species of environmental concern.

Selected Spectroscopy Highlights

ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

Twist Solves Bilayer Graphene Mystery

New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes

Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

Studies Bolster Promise of Topological Insulators

A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

Regarding Confinement Resonances

AP-XPS Measures Active MIEC Oxides in Action

Heterogeneous Morphology Found in Organic Solar Cells

Probing Strain-Induced Changes in Electronic Structure with XMCD

Superconducting Topological Insulators

Molecular Measurements of the Deep-Sea Oil Plume in the Gulf of Mexico

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

ALS Reveals New State of Matter

Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

Site-Selective Ionization in Nanoclusters Affects Subsequent Fragmentation

Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

Harnessing the Bacterial Power of Nanomagnets

Bilayer Graphene Gets a Bandgap

Towards Heavy Fermions in Europium Intermetallic Compounds

Observation of a Macroscopically Quantum-Entangled Insulator

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts

Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays