Andreas Scholl recently became a senior staff scientist, a job title that he sees not necessarily as indicative of a different job, but rather of the gradual change in his responsibilities over his 18 years at the ALS.
Describe your role at the ALS and its evolution over the years.
I started at the ALS as a postdoc, focusing on x-ray microscopy, in 1998 after completing my PhD in Germany. I went on to become a beamline scientist at Beamline 7.3.1 and I’m now a beamline scientist at Beamline 11.0.1, where we also have the PEEM-3 microscope. I mostly collaborate with users doing science in the area of magnetism, but there’s really a wide range of scientific interests at my beamline. I would say 30 to 40 percent of my users are coming from widely different research areas, and it's fascinating because I get to help them in subjects that I don’t specialize in myself.
One of my roles with ESG is doing everything I can to help Howard Padmore find time to focus on his other responsibilities. We look at where the ALS needs to become a better facility; where we’re lacking, not just for users but also for our staff.
What do you enjoy most about working at the ALS?
I like the science environment and I like working on big problems. I like that in general we still have the resources to do completely new types of experiments, not just focusing on one set of systems but finding tools that are widely applicable to a range of scientific questions. Also to really work on the big problems like energy and computing. I also really like the practical aspect of my work; I’m an experimenter at heart. I guess I’m as much interested in the execution of science as in the dissemination of science, so I’m glad I’m actually involved in the hands-on science itself. My job in some ways requires me to be a specialist, but in other ways I need to be a jack-of-all-trades, working with instrumentation and engineering aspects of interdisciplinary experiments, and I really enjoy that.
What are some of the biggest challenges of working at the ALS?
One big challenge of course is workload; you have to stay one step ahead and anticipate when there’s going to be a high group workload and prepare for that. The only way to be a beamline scientist and not be under stress at all times is to run your beamline as efficiently as possible. When I first started at the ALS, everything at my beamline was manual, which meant that I basically had to be at the beamline all the time because users couldn’t do anything. Thankfully, now my current endstation is pretty much fully automated. If a user has a problem I can just log in from wherever I am and remotely fix things.
Did you always want to work at a synchrotron?
I always knew that I wanted to become a scientist. Physical science interested me the most because I wanted to understand the basic laws of nature. I think I ended up working in synchrotron science largely because of the influence of my PhD advisor, Wolfgang Eberhart, who is actually still a user at the ALS. Besides doing my lab research on ultrafast phenomena, I spent a lot of time in college at the synchrotron doing experiments and helping other graduate students doing their research.
What do you see as the future of the ALS?
I’ve always been interested in branching out into areas where x-rays haven’t been used before. Ultrafast experiments looking at time-dependent phenomena was one of these areas, and that led to the case for NGLS and the LCLS. Now with ALS-U as a possibility, there’s a huge opportunity to use its laser-like beam. I’m very interested in finding new ways to do experiments using coherence. I’m also really interested in where x-ray science will be in 10 to 20 years, thinking about what we’ll need for experiments of the future.
These big facilities like the ALS start up, and then they have a really productive period, and then there comes a point when they have to start thinking about the next steps. When I started here it was just after the Birgeneau report, and the ALS was being challenged to become a world-leading user facility. I was here during that time when we grew into a world-class soft x-ray facility. Now, after more than 20 years its clear that we need to take the next step. It’s awesome that our accelerator scientists know what that next step is, and that is a diffraction-limited storage ring that produces x-rays that are fully coherent. The challenge for the beamline staff will be to figure out how to use these new capabilities in a profitable way. Thinking about the next type of experiment that we haven’t even thought about yet is what keeps me going. We are in a really exciting phase for the ALS.
What do you like to do when you’re not at a synchrotron?
I like to spend time in nature—hiking, camping, a bit of backpacking, going to all the national parks. That’s part of why I came to California. I do read a lot as well, mostly biographies and history, but also children's books, which I am reading in German to my kids.
As operations supervisor at the ALS, Tom Scarvie works with the accelerator operators and floor operators to make sure that the machine runs as well as possible and that beamline work is done safely and according to policy. The operations team strives to make sure the ALS is running reliably and at top quality all the time. Scarvie is also one of three chairs of the ALS Beamline Review Committee and he chairs the Accelerator Review Committee.
What is a typical day like for you?
I am a member of the ALS Accelerator Physics Group, and our main goal is to ensure high-quality operations at the ALS to enable the best science possible. We’re always trying to keep the beam stable in size, trajectory, and current, and I help create and maintain the computer algorithms that control and monitor all of these aspects of the beam. I’m also one of the main points of contact for questions about beam quality. We encourage users and beamline staff to come to the control room with questions about the accelerator and if they have problems with beam quality, as often beamlines are some of the best diagnostics we have to monitor beam quality.
Did you always want to work in accelerator operations?
When I was in college, I had no idea that this type of job even existed. I did always want to be an engineer; I had a grandfather who was a civil engineer and he fostered my interest in the field. While earning a bachelor’s degree in materials science and engineering from UC Berkeley, I happened to take an x-ray physics elective course that included a tour of the ALS, which opened my eyes to the world of big science. I started in an accelerator operator position at the ALS back in 1996, and then got more involved with the physics group as I learned more about the machine.
What has kept you at the ALS all these years?
The technology involved in running the ALS, the constant creative troubleshooting, and the spectacular and fun physics involved in controlling relativistic beams all keep me coming back for more. There’s also a huge satisfaction that comes from enabling world-class science. It’s really a privilege to work here, because it's one of a few places in the world that’s so productive scientifically, and so in demand. The pride that everyone takes in what they do here is obvious and motivating.
What are some of the biggest challenges of your job?
When we do have failures or problems, it is challenging to balance the pressure to fix things as fast as possible with the need to understand and fix the root causes of trouble. The decisions involved in finding that balance are falling more in my lap as I’ve taken on more of a supervisory role. Being effective under the pressure of 40 different research teams that are maybe only here for a few days is huge, and maintaining the necessary performance with equipment that can be 20 years old in some cases is another big challenge. Poor quality beam can be just as bad for the experimenters as no beam, so it’s very important that we maintain the quality of operations.
What do you do outside of work to decompress?
I really enjoy cycling, skiing, hiking, and just being outside in nature with my family. My wife and I have two young boys, ages 2 and 4, and a dog. We are also new beekeepers and soon we’ll have chickens as well, so we keep very busy.
As Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy Sciences, Don DePaolo oversees the ALS, Chemical Sciences, and Materials Sciences. He’s also a UC Berkeley Professor of Geochemistry in the Department of Earth and Planetary Science. Though many ALS staff and users may not know him personally, DePaolo has been a key figure in the ALS/DOE relationship over the past few years. DePaolo will be retiring this year, but hopes to continue to work with the ALS in moving toward a facility upgrade.
How did your relationship with the ALS emerge?
My involvement with the ALS started about three years ago; I was an Associate Lab Director and the ALS was moved into Energy Sciences, so it became one of my divisions. My interaction with the ALS has been almost entirely a learning experience, from understanding the actual accelerator science to the relationship with DOE.
What have been some of the most interesting aspects of your work with the ALS?
One thing I became aware of rather quickly was that facilities, like the ALS and the Molecular Foundry, are viewed and dealt with differently by the DOE than the scientific divisions. I’ve come to understand what the ALS is good at and also how the DOE views us. I have learned a lot about both accelerator science and x-ray science at the ALS and how an upgrade is necessary for U.S. science and to keep ALS as the best soft x-ray facility in the world.
What have been some of the most rewarding aspects of your work with the ALS?
One of the most rewarding parts of my job overall has been working with both the ALS staff and the DOE on developing a path forward for the ALS-U project. My job as an ALD has put me in a particularly beneficial position to help with this, and has also provided me a unique learning experience. It is exciting that we are continuing to make progress.
One aspect of my work with the ALS has been to develop an understanding of what the DOE expects of us, some of which we often don’t fully appreciate. This has involved continued discussion with DOE leadership, which has also been rewarding because it has allowed me to develop new relationships with those people, and to better understand the complicated environment in which they strive to help and develop Laboratory programs and facilities. This understanding has carried over and been critical to development of the ALS-U initiative. My role has been as a liaison to the DOE staff. I try to keep us moving at the right pace and to maintain good communication with the DOE. Seeing ALS-U listed as absolutely central for basic science at the recent Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee meeting was a wonderful validation of the hard work that many people at ALS have done over the past several years (see the update by Dave Robin in this issue).
What does retirement hold for you?
Because I’m also a faculty member on campus, retirement is sort of how I define it. I’ll become a professor of the graduate school after retirement and maintain my association with both my campus department – Earth and Planetary Science – and the Lab. At the Lab I’ll likely continue on for a couple years, shepherding along projects that I’ve been involved with, like ALS-U, and research projects in the Energy Geosciences Division.
I’m hoping I’ll have more time to spend on research and also just more time uncommitted. I’ll spend some of that doing what I enjoy outside of work—hiking, biking, golf – and perhaps some work on a more popular-level science book. I’d also like to devote more time to music; I used to really enjoy playing guitar.
Jay Nix started started the user program at Beamline 4.2.2 back in 2004, shortly after the Molecular Biology Consortium built the beamline. The macromolecular crystallography beamline is a little different than most at the ALS because it’s privately managed by a consortium of 10 Midwest universities that pooled their money together to build the beamline, and now continue to do so to maintain it. Nix serves about 50 labs, around 200 users, mostly remotely.
How did a group of Midwest universities end up here at the ALS?
Back around 1999 or 2000 when ALS started the superbend project, they needed people to buy into it. We were originally going to build at the Advanced Photon Source, but Howard Padmore recruited us and we realized it would be much better to do it here.
I started off just getting the user program and the interface up so that we could collect data with users who were coming here. In 2007 we added a remote robot mounter. We were the first beamline to offer remote capabilities; it just made sense given that most of our users were coming from the Midwest.
What’s a typical day like for you?
Pretty much every day I’m running samples for some of my users, and in between I’m doing upgrades or maintenance at the beamline. A schedule is nice to look at, but when you’re in the lab growing crystals it’s a matter of when they are ready, they’re ready. So I’ve gotten rid of schedules altogether. I work closely with my users and prioritize which samples need to run when. It’s great for high-throughput projects, like pharmaceutical research. I like to say we are Fed Ex limited; I’ve had situations where there’s been 24 hours between when users say they need beam time and when I get their samples up.
One thing I’ve been focusing on more in the last few years is outreach, working with high school students and community college and university students. I’ve had teachers who use the beamline to show students about crystallography.
What are the biggest challenges of your job?
Those 3 a.m. calls aren’t always fun, but I actually encourage my users to call me at any time of day if something doesn’t seem to be going right; I don’t want their samples to get damaged. Most things I can fix from home. Another challenge is always just trying to plan for the future, looking at what our users are going to need and how to fund that. I write grants, work on budgets a lot.
What do you enjoy most about your work?
I love working with my users. The work we do is interesting and important. We just had samples related to Zika virus. We just published a paper on HIV proteins. We’re working on things that directly affect the way people live. I’ve worked with a number of drug companies that have developed some very important treatments based on work at the ALS.
When you have time to relax, you…….?
I’m a big science fiction fan. I love Asimov, Bradbury, Terry Pratchett. I’ve been reading some amazing work by Neil Gaiman lately. And sometimes I just need a little Douglas Adams to get through my day.
Cobber Lam started working at Berkeley Lab 10 years ago as a student assistant, while attending college at Cal State East Bay. Within two months, he was assigned to the ALS and has stayed put ever since. He used to be matrixed via IT, but last year he became a direct ALS employee. ALS IT support is divided between Lam and Tim Kellogg, with Lam being more forward-facing, dealing with users and staff, and Kellogg working on the back-end mostly with controls and operations groups.
What’s a typical day like for you?
My first priority is the beamlines; beam time is expensive and we need to make sure those beamline computers are running 24/7. Other than that, its mainly “break and fix.” On the side there’s always regular maintenance—new software, hardware, IT infrastructure maintenance, virtual machine maintenance. Sometimes I’m up and running all day, sometimes I’m stuck in a back room fixing a computer all day. My peak day was last year, when I logged 22,000 steps and 20 stories on my Fitbit. My average is more than 10,000 steps a day.
What do you enjoy most about working at the ALS?
Everyone is so nice, and I’m never bored.
What’s challenging about working at the ALS?
It’s such a unique environment. The beamline computers are non-standardized, so there’s always something specialized about each setup. On the user side, computers are more or less standardized. The skillset you need here is not the same as in a corporate environment where everyone has the same setup, same software. Everyone here is very smart, so I find that a lot of the problems they present to me are really challenging. By the time they call me, they’ve often already done some pretty smart trouble-shooting.
Another issue is staying on top of hardware development for storage needs; scientific research accumulates a lot of data!
I really have to know my customer base; I am always prioritizing tasks and have to know who needs me immediately, and who can wait.
Have you always been interested in computers and hardware?
Oh yeah, when I was a kid none of my toys survived. I was always too interested in taking them apart to see what was going on. When I was a bit older, building computers became my hobby. It was cheaper back in those days to buy the parts and build your own. I would say that I learned the most about computers before I even went to college.
How do you keep up with industry trends and advances?
I read a lot of tech websites and blogs, some daily. The ones I read the most are ArsTechnica.com, AnandTech.com, and blogs.technet.com. It’s really important that I know what’s available so that when someone presents you with an issue you can tell them what options they have and what would work best. We are always being called upon for consultation.
What do you like to do in your free time?
My main passion earlier in life was fine art photography—initially I thought I’d go to school for photography and become a photography teacher—and I still really enjoy it. I carry my camera with me everywhere.
Other than that I really love to go camping, hiking, and I like to eat and have friends who are amazing cooks and enjoy cooking for me! One of my favorite local hiking spots is around Lake Chabot.
I’ve gotten used to the “glamorous” way of car camping; I usually go with a group of friends and everyone shares the cooking. Having grown up in Hong Kong, camping was taking a bus out to the countryside, getting dropped off on the side of the road and hiking for hours before making your own camp. Pretty different!
We sat down recently with Principal Scientific Engineering Associate Warren Byrne to get his take on the history and future of the ALS, from an accelerator point of view.
How long have you been at the Lab?
I’ve been at the Lab for about 37 years in March. I started in the operations group at the Bevatron, doing shift work. When I was working the swing shift I didn’t come in until 4:00pm, so in the mornings I would work on restoring my 1902 Maybeck home in the Berkeley Hills. Home restoration was my “other life” for about 13 years. The house was recently written up in American Bungalow magazine.
What are some highlights from your time at the ALS?
I moved to the ALS as it was being built in 1992, starting out in the operations group and then moving into the accelerator physics group. For the past 16 years, I’ve been in charge of overseeing the injector system, which consists of the linac and the booster synchrotron and the electron gun. I’ve really enjoyed living so close to work, being able to almost literally walk to the office. Because of that, I’ve also become the go-to person when things are going wrong at the ALS in the middle of the night! It’s a 24/7 operation, and we take the status of the beam really seriously.
What has kept you at the ALS all these years?
Well, I feel like it has literally kept me alive! I don’t have a commute…. Even if I drive in, there are only two stop signs before I’m here. I can be here in 5 minutes. When I’m at work, I’m moving around all day, whether on the beamline floor or around the Lab at lunchtime. I’m afraid I would be terribly lazy if it weren’t for work. I grew up in Montclair and have lived in Berkeley since 1970, so it’s definitely home to me. It’s also been really interesting and challenging to be a part of this facility all these years and see the machine through multiple upgrades. The technical challenges are just so unique. It never gets boring.
Looking forward, what do you see as potential in the ALS?
There is a lot of potential in an upgrade of the ALS to make the beam smaller and brighter. Of course that requires a huge revamp of the facility; pulling out and replacing all the magnets and in order to get the small beam size the magnetic fields have to be quite strong. To get strong fields, pole tips need to be closer together, which means the vacuum chamber has to be a lot smaller so there’s less room for the beam to travel. With such a small aperture, the way we have to inject the beam is totally different. Unlike the current injection scheme where a few electron bunches are added each shot to the existing beam, after the upgrade, the entire storage ring beam will be swapped out into an accumulator ring, while at the same time a higher intensity beam from the accumulator is injected into the storage ring. The beam in the accumulator ring then gets topped up before the next beam swap-out. This exchange of beams between the storage ring and accumulator will occur at intervals of several tens of seconds.
After many years as a researcher followed by a few in government and policy, Ashley White sees her new position as ALS Director of Communications as a perfect blend of it all. “I’m thrilled to be back in a research environment, since I started out my career as a researcher and loved being in the lab,” she says. “When I walk around the ALS and see all the tin foil and the beamline equipment, it feels like home.”
After completing her PhD in Materials Science from the University of Cambridge, White says she was looking for something “a little bit different” and heard about an opportunity to spend a year on Capitol Hill as a special policy advisor in the U.S. Senate. “I thought I’d just do it for a year and go back to being a researcher,” she says, but the experience launched a new focus for her career.
White spent one year as a Materials Research Society/Optical Society Congressional Science and Engineering Fellow, working in Minnesota Senator Al Franken’s office. Her focus was mainly on STEM education, which she says aligned nicely with the science education work she had done as a grad student through Science and Engineering Experiments for Kids (SEEK), hosting elementary and middle school workshops. White wrote legislation to create a STEM master teacher corps, a program that would identify top science, engineering, and math teachers and provide them with further professional development.
After her stint on Capitol Hill, White continued on to the executive branch, working in the Materials Research Division of the National Science Foundation as an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and Technology Policy fellow. “I really enjoyed getting that broad overview, seeing how things worked in both branches of government,” she says.
Toward the end of her time at the NSF, White had focused on materials for sustainable development, which led to her next position at the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). The USGBC sets standards for green building practices and certifies green buildings through LEED, which gave White the opportunity to interface with industry.
White moved to the Bay Area last year and began to think about how she could combine her recent work experience and her passion for research, which led her to Berkeley Lab. “I was really looking to get back into a research environment,” she says. “I knew that I wanted that collaborative mindset and that I could contribute my knowledge of how things work at a federal level, and how they influence what researchers are able to do.”
The collaborative mindset was a hallmark of White’s conversations about working at Berkeley Lab—“everyone mentioned it when I talked with them about what it was like to work here,” she says. “During the interview process, I was really struck by how positive and welcoming everyone was.”
In addition to her passion for science, White has developed her passion for music throughout her life. She has played violin since the age of six and has developed and taught university courses on the connections between science and music. Locally she performs with the Bay Area Rainbow Symphony.
In his new role as ALS Engineering Lead, Ken Chow has taken on a consolidated role that was previously split between mechanical and electrical. As of August, a reorganization of ALS engineering has Chow overseeing all engineering tasks at the ALS, which includes magnetic and vacuum systems, mechanical engineering and technology, and electrical and controls engineering.
Chow has only been in his new role for about a month, but he already has a vision of greater communication. “I’m planning to meet regularly with engineering leads at the ALS,” he says. “I really see an important part of my job as helping to communicate engineering-related matters within ALS, to engineering staff, scientists and management, but also between ALS Division and Engineering Division.”
Chow is anticipating that a new engineering systems program being developed in the Engineering Division by Engineering Systems Lead Daniela Leitner will be rolled out to all engineering staff soon. “Here at the ALS I see us using a version that is tailored to our specific needs,” says Chow. “We’ll be doing the same work but I think an improved structure will add clarity to our engineering practices and also yield greater consistency between different projects.”
Another primary focus in his new role will be ALS-U. “It’s going to be a big challenge to keep current ALS projects going and to also try to get ALS-U off the ground at the same time,” he says. “ALS-U is going to be a really exciting upgrade.”
Prior to his new role, Chow’s work was mainly focused on beamlines and endstations—he was involved in larger beamline projects such as MAESTRO and COSMIC, providing engineering management and support.
“It’s a great time to be here; there are a lot of great projects going on and the prospect of ALS-U is very exciting,” Chow says. “It’s always fun to be involved with something like this.”