Steve Rossi, Project and Facility Management
Around this time of year, Steve Rossi, project and facility management group leader at ALS, shifts his focus to shutdown mode. Preparation and planning for the weeks that the ALS is out of commission is a huge part of Rossi’s job. While much of this is invisible to users, all of it is absolutely essential to the maintenance and growth of the ALS.
“This is a pivotal shutdown,” says Rossi. “We have many multi-year projects that are finally coming to fruition.”
The ALS shutdown is scheduled for February 4 through April 8, 2013, which is slightly longer than usual to accommodate this year’s to-do list. Rossi’s list includes work on the ALS controls upgrade, sextupole magnet installations, MAESTRO front-end and beamline installation, an RF power supply upgrade and replacement of the storage ring bend magnet power supply.
“At the ALS we’re always chasing an increase in performance and reliability,” says Rossi. “And shutdown is when we work towards reaching those goals.”
The RF upgrade, a $4.8 million project, and the controls upgrade, a $7.6 million project, have been many years in the planning stage, says Rossi. The work on these two projects will largely be transparent to users, but they are essential to the future of the ALS – the controls upgrade will update and replace an aging controls system and the RF upgrade will give the ALS vastly improved backup capabilities in addition to the ability to provide more RF power to the storage ring.
“We’re doing our job right if users never notice the work we’ve done,” says Rossi, “because that means we’re identifying our vulnerabilities and investing in them before our users see them.”
This forward-looking viewpoint is what much of Rossi’s work is based on. He describes his position as “an inch deep and a mile wide,” which is apt when taking into consideration what he’s responsible for – the overall project portfolio of the ALS and the oversight and coordination of maintenance and facility projects. As such, Rossi often serves as a bridge between operations and technical staff – coordinating projects and the players involved in carrying them through to fruition. He describes his management philosophy as “not looking into the past, but projecting into the future.”
Elke Arenholz, Senior Scientist, Scientific Support Group
Senior scientist Elke Arenholz has seen a lot of changes at Beamlines 4.0.2 and 6.3.1 since she arrived at the ALS in 2000, but what brought her here initially is still what keeps her passionate about her work – designing new instrumentation and working with the user community to optimize research capabilities.
Arenholz’s first big project at the ALS ended up becoming her “claim to fame” – an eight-pole electromagnet that provides magnetic fields up to 0.8 T in arbitrary directions relative to the incoming x-ray beam.
“It was really exciting to build and it had a huge impact right away because we were able to use it characterize materials in a way that no one had before,” says Arenholz. “It was the first device installed at a synchrotron that could apply the magnetic field in any direction, instead of just having it parallel to the x ray beam.”
Arenholz has continued with this theme ever since, always asking: “How can we extract some new information?” Typically, the answer involves working with engineering to create a new experimental configuration.
“I want to understand very fundamentally the interaction of x-rays with magnetic materials, and to do that I build new systems that people haven’t used before,” says Arenholz. “It’s a lot of fun, and we are really lucky to have a wonderful engineering department here at the Lab with lots of experts.”
In 2011, her group, which includes Beamline Scientists Catherine Jenkins and Padraic Shafer, completed work on a first-of-its-kind, ARRA-funded superconducting vector magnet. The magnet, which is a superconducting version of Arenholz’s eight-pole electromagnet, provides fields up to 5 T in arbitrary directions.
Arenholz has focused on spectroscopy for much of her career, but she has recently turned her attention to scattering—studying x ray diffraction patterns from periodic structures on the nanoscale. Once again, this shift required building a new endstation. The LDRD-funded system that was installed at Beamline 4.0.2 last fall uses a superconducting disc of 0.8” diameter to generate 4T at the sample while still allowing maximum flexibility for the scattering geometry.
While Arenholz enjoys her own research and the continual process of advancing beamline and endstation capabilities, she also finds her interactions with users at the beamline very rewarding. She describes her work life as consisting of two experiments: the scientific ones and the anthropological experiment of working with users.
“There’s a lot of teaching involved,” says Arenholz. “I am constantly thinking ‘How can I explain things better to users and make the system operation easier so that they make the best use of the experimental capabilities and beamtime?’”
In addition to her work at the ALS, Arenholz is an academic editor for AIP Advances, on the editorial board of the Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (JMMM), and program co-chair for the 2013 Joint MMM/Intermag Conference.
David Shuh, Senior Scientist, Chemical Sciences Division
For the past decade, David Shuh has led one of the most in-demand beamlines at the ALS. In addition to his position as a Senior Scientist in Berkeley Lab’s Chemical Sciences Division (CSD), Shuh is Project Leader at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 , the Molecular Environmental Sciences (MES) Beamline, a leading national resource in the field of soft x-ray synchrotron radiation research. Research at the MES Beamline has provided some of the first significant molecular-level understandings of important chemical and physical processes taking place at interfaces under real or more realistic conditions than ever before possible.
Run by the LBNL CSD in partnership with the ALS, Shuh credits the MES Beamline’s popularity and success to multiple factors, a primary one being its initiation with a strong, innovative, and sufficiently developed scientific program proposed by the initial core research team members (Hendrik Bluhm-CSD, Mary K. Gilles-CSD, and Tolek Tyliszczak-ALS). Secondly, the needs of the scientific programs were expertly translated into a revolutionary general-purpose beamline operating from 75 eV to about 2100 eV downstream of an elliptical polarization undulator (EPU) and flagship endstations. The beamline construction team was led by Tony Warwick and they did a fabulous job including the development of a fantastic monochromator.
“The contributions and dedication of the core research team and the scientists at the MES Beamline have been key to the development of scientific programs, endstations, support of general users, and general user scientific programs,” says Shuh.
Shuh also notes that it was the strong and unwavering support of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, through the Divisions of Materials Science and Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, that enabled the construction of the MES Beamline.
“The strong operational support provided early on from of the DOE’s Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences served as a solid foundation for all the developments that have followed at the MES Beamline,” says Shuh. “And the partnership and support we’ve received from the ALS has also been key to our success.”
The MES Beamline Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) endstation is a top worldwide resource for a diverse set of scientific investigations utilizing soft x-ray STXM. The endstation pair – the MES Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (APXPS) endstations are leaders in surface studies of interfaces at pressures approaching 10 Torr for a wide range of energy research. Shuh notes that several other synchrotron radiation facilities have built similar beamlines and endstations, adding that “imitation is the highest form of flattery.”
The MES research team’s significant scientific diversity and history has also been a major contributor to the success of the beamline, says Shuh. Physicists Tolek Tyliszczak and Hendrik Bluhm, as well as chemist Mary K. Gilles, were all involved early on in the MES Beamline effort.
“The scientific diversity of the staff, their expertise, dedication, and years of experience are invaluable to the wide range of users at the MES Beamline and in general to the ALS as well,” says Shuh.
The MES Beamline scientists have been recognized over the years for their development of beamline endstation instrumentation. Tolek Tyliszczak has been awarded two ALS Klaus Halbach Awards for Innovative Instrumentation as part of two teams for STXM developments in 2002 and 2010. Similarly, Hendrik Bluhm was part of a team awarded a Halbach Award in 2004 and an R&D 100 Award in 2010 for the development of ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy.
Shuh and the MES team have seen many accomplishments over the years at the MES Beamline – he notes that they’ve had a tremendous impact in magnetic dynamics, the development and use of in-situ reaction cells for science in the soft x-ray regime, environmental science, and a significant impact on realistic catalysis and interfacial science across the board.
In addition to his role at the MES Beamline, Shuh is the Director of the Glenn T. Seaborg Center and is a co-lead on the Berkeley Lab Critical Materials Initiative. Shuh, along with Frances Houle (CSD), will work toward reducing current shortages and preventing future shortages through advances in nanoscience, chemistry, materials science, computation and theory, physics, materials genomics, and energy analysis techniques. The project will make use of Department of Energy national user facilities located throughout the country.
Mike Martin, Infrared Beamlines Leader and Deputy Group Leader, Scientific Support Group
I have been at the ALS for 15 years now, and continue to enjoy being a part of this dynamic and always interesting facility. My main job continues to be the primary Beamline Scientist for the ALS infrared beamlines (BL 1.4 and BL 5.4). Together with Hans Bechtel, we help a diverse array of scientists perform FTIR spectromicrsocopy on their samples. We continue to push the boundaries of the science that synchrotron infrared beamlines can enable, recently exploring two new directions. Taking spectral imaging into the third dimension, we are developing FTIR spectral microtomography, and on the nano scale, well sub-diffraction limited probing via scattering the light off an AFM tip.
I wear a number of other hats around the ALS and Berkeley Lab. I am proud to be a Deputy Group Leader for the ALS Scientific Support Group (SSG) under Zahid Hussain. The SSG's primary mission is to support the efforts of researchers at the ALS through scientific and technical collaboration and scientific outreach. We run and develop many of the ALS beamlines, organize a variety of seminars, help grow the pool of future synchrotron scientists via the ALS Doctoral and Post-Doctoral Fellowship programs, and pioneer many technical developments. The SSG plays an important role in keeping ALS science ahead of the game and maintaining the ALS as an outstanding national user facility.
I participate actively in several safety efforts for the ALS division and the Lab. I am the current chair of the ALS Staff Safety Committee which helps write safety policies by investigating whenever an incident provides opportunities to learn, and making sure that the division follows through with effective corrective actions. I also co-chair the ALS Beamline Review Committee which ensures beamlines are designed, built, and maintained for safety as well as technical excellence. I am the ALS representative on the LBNL Safety Advisory Committee and am also a member of the LBNL Institutional Biosafety Committee. I have recently been working on a Lab-wide effort to recognize and enhance our safety culture, and if you're a Berkeley Lab staff member you'll soon hear more about how "Safety is Elemental."
For the broader synchrotron community, I will soon be taking over as US Editor for Synchrotron Radiation News starting with Volume 26. SRN provides review articles on specific areas of synchrotron research, project updates of new light sources, meeting reports, and a new product section. I am looking forward to working with many of you in keeping this publication a widely read and useful journal for the synchrotron community! I welcome your suggestions and comments (
Musa Ahmed, Senior Scientist, Chemical Dynamics Beamline
At more than 17 years old, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline (ALS Beamline 9.0.2) is one of the oldest beamlines at the ALS. Over those years, the scientific thrusts at the beamline have evolved from performing state-of-the-art reaction dynamics studies to probing and understanding the physical and chemical principles that govern complicated phenomena in nature. Strongly coupled with this interest is a realization that research should be guided by the grand scientific challenges of the 21st century. Gaining a molecular level understanding of alternative carbon neutral energy sources and how to mitigate the effects of global climate change are themes that currently drive a number of users and beamline staff.
The beamline has four terminals—two with monochromators—which deliver vacuum ultraviolet light in the range of 7.4-25 eV. A number of endstations, all configured with mass spectrometers, measure and quantify processes which are relevant to a broad range of fields, particularly combustion and aerosol science, electronic structure of radicals, molecules and clusters in the gas phase and analysis of complicated systems, such as bacterial biofilms, atmospheric aerosols, fossil feathers and soil. Four of the endstations dedicated to molecular beams, aerosol studies, low-temperature reaction studies and imaging mass spectrometry are in-house facilities. Two "roll-up" endstations come from the Sandia Livermore combustion research facility where flame chemists and reaction kineticists probe complex molecules in exquisite detail and discover species never seen before using synchrotron radiation (see ALS Science Highlight "Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate"-ed.) . The home team, comprising students, post-docs and scientists discover the “glassy” nature of an organic aerosol, decipher the transfer of protons in the absence of hydrogen bonds (see this month's highlight, "A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds"-ed.) , and use lasers to blow sand and graphite up to get them into the gas-phase. In collaboration with outside users, the origin of the solar system is elucidated, the effects of cigarette smoke on walls quantified, and the nature of formation of organic molecules in distant Titan explained. Theoretical chemists can be seen working the owl shift, seeking to understand what happens when molecules relevant to biofuel production are heated to 1300 Celsius. Evolutionary biologists, paleontologists, environmental geochemists, and life science type folks have put 47-million-years-old bird feathers, dirt, pieces of wood, grass and leaves, and scum floating on top of a pond into the beautiful imaging mass spectrometer located right by the experimental walkway. Sometimes an old biodiesel running Mercedes can be seen in the parking lot outside, belching its exhaust into the synchrotron for study, and that is what the chemical dynamics beamline is all about. Seventeen years old and marching boldly on.
For more information about Musa and his team, and their research, visit the Beamline 9.0.2 Web site.
Carolyn Larabell, Director, National Center for X-ray Tomography
The National Center for X-ray Tomography (NCXT) soft x-ray microscope, Beamline 2.1, is now in its third year of operation. This was the world’s first soft x-ray microscope to be designed specifically for biological and biomedical imaging, and as such has set the pace on developing this modality for imaging biological cells. Under DOE-BER and NIH funding, the NCXT has taken a somewhat esoteric synchrotron-based imaging technique and turned it into an increasingly mainstream biological tool [for example, a recent issue of the Journal of Structural Biology was dedicated in entirety to x-ray microscopy of biological materials (Carrascosa, 2012 #3)]. Consequently, this beamline is following a common trajectory in terms of increases in both requests for access to beamtime, and publications. To a great extent this growth in interest from the biological community can be attributed to the uniqueness of the data and information produced by this type of microscopy. No other technique can image an intact, fully hydrated eukaryotic cell with such high fidelity and spatial resolution.
The NCXT is no by means a one-trick pony. In laboratories near Beamline 2.1 staff have been working on further developing "High Numerical Aperture Cryo-Fluorescence Microscopy."* . Again, this breakthrough microscope was the first in the world, and represents an enormous coup for the ALS in terms of a light source impacting cell biology. This new light microscopy has a number of unique features that make it exciting as a stand-alone instrument for determining the location of labeled molecules inside a cell. However, when it is coupled with soft x-ray tomography – on the same cell – it becomes a veritable powerhouse technique. Soft x-ray tomography produces quantitative, high-resolution, 3D images of the cellular and sub-cellular architecture of fully hydrated, unstained cells, including eukaryotic cells. Currently, this microscope operates with optics that produce images with a spatial resolution of 50 nm, with the prospect of achieving 10nm resolution in the near future with the installation of the latest generation of zone plates developed by the Center for X-Ray Optics. High NA cryogenic fluorescence microscopy generates 3D maps—with isotropic precision—that detail the position of fluorescently labeled molecules inside the cell. Both of these techniques are closely matched in terms of resolution/precision, and therefore optimally suited to the generation of a correlated view of a cell, and answering questions important in fields as diverse as medicine and biofuel production.
*Larabell, C. A. & Nugent, K. A., "Imaging cellular architecture with X-rays,". Curr Opin Struc Biol 20, 623-631, (2010)
McDermott, G., Le Gros, M. A. & Larabell, C. A., "Visualizing cell architecture and molecular location using soft x-ray tomography and correlated cryo-light microscopy," Annual review of physical chemistry 63, 225-239, (2012).
McDermott, G., Le Gros, M. A., Knoechel, C. G., Uchida, M. & Larabell, C. A., "Soft X-ray tomography and cryogenic light microscopy: the cool combination in cellular imaging," Trends Cell Biol 19, 587-595, (2009)
Howard Padmore, Division Deputy for Experimental Systems
As the ALS Deputy for Experimental Systems, I oversee the Experimental Systems Group (ESG) with the help of the group deputies, Alastair MacDowell and Tony Warwick. The mission of the ESG is to assist researchers working on ESG-supported beamlines, to develop the technical infrastructure needed to carry out this work, and to help develop new applications of synchrotron radiation primarily through the development of new techniques. A particular focus of the group’s work is in x-ray microscopy and in the application of many techniques to the challenges in energy sciences.
In addition to maintaining and improving the performance of our present suite of beamlines, we have active programs that will add new capabilities in the next few years.
- COSMIC: This will be an EPU powered soft x-ray beamline, in the soon to be chicaned sector 7, that will support two endstations: one for coherent scattering and one for coherent imaging. The optical design is complete and we are about to start working with the engineering group on realization of this new state-of-the-art system for coherent soft x-ray experiments.
- Nanosurveyor: This is a new ptychographic microscope that will be on COSMIC and should give a resolution well beyond that achievable with conventional x-ray microscopy. In this system, a diffraction pattern is recorded from two overlapping spots on the sample; the overlap provides a robust way to phase the diffraction pattern and recover a real-space image. A prototype of the microscope is now undergoing testing on BL 9.0.1, and using the BL 11 and 220.127.116.11 STXMs, testing of this modality is underway using present microscopes. Initial results indicate that sub-10 nm resolution will be achieved.
- Optical metrology: Beamlines depend on good optics, and for this we must qualify and adjust all optics we receive. This is done in our optical metrology lab. A new lab with temperature-controlled and clean conditions is under construction in the USB and should give us a major improvement in capability.
- Improvement to existing beamlines: We have a medium-term plan to upgrade some of our older beamlines using state of the art optics (LUXOR project). This is a similar program to that successfully carried out on the protein crystallography beamlines a couple of years ago. We are awaiting funding so that a start can be made in this area.
- Beamline upgrades and moves: We plan to move and upgrade beamline 11.3.1, the Chemical Crystallography Beamline. This is ALS’s most productive beamline in terms of published output, but it is on a non-optimum source. Moving it to a superbend magnet will mean a factor of 1000 increase in flux density at the sample for small crystals. In collaboration with the Chemical Sciences Division, we are also examining the opportunities for moving the existing BL 7.0 beamline to sector 9, to replace the coherent optics beamline. This will give new soft x-ray capabilities to the chemical dynamics group.
This is a small glimpse into the work of the Experimental Systems Group. The work of the group is only possible through the hard work and dedication of the group members who play a central role in keeping the ALS at the leading edge of synchrotron science.
Zahid Hussain, Division Deputy for Scientific Support
As the ALS Division Deputy for Scientific Support, I oversee the Scientific Support Group (SSG), with the help of deputies Eli Rotenberg and Michael Martin. The SSG's primary mission is to support the efforts of researchers at the ALS through scientific and technical collaboration and scientific outreach. Depending on the needs of ALS users, the degree of collaboration can range from technical assistance with a beamline to full partnership in developing new research programs and experiment endstations. The SSG also strives to expand ALS scientific programs and broaden its user base through presentations, demonstration experiments, and publications.
The group organizes a variety of seminars, including a weekly ALS Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) x-ray science and technology seminar series: a targeted weekly lecture series with talks given by leading researchers on various topics.
The ALS Doctoral Fellowship in Residence program, established in 2001, enables students to acquire hands-on scientific training and develop professional maturity for independent research. In 2007, we initiated an ALS Postdoctoral Fellowship Program that identifies outstanding individuals in new and emerging scientific fields and provides them with advanced training. Both programs lead the way in establishing a pipeline of future beamline scientists to U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences user facilities.
The SSG played a very active role in creating the "Advanced Light Source Strategic Plan: 2009–2016, Addressing the Scientific Grand Challenges and Our Energy Future" and the "Photon Science for Renewable Energy" brochure, which is currently being updated.
The SSG has pioneered unique techniques that enable novel science, particularly using soft x rays. Some of these are listed below:
- Development of ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (APXPS) that enables XPS experiments at pressures of up to 10 torr, bridging a gap between ultrahigh vacuum and real-world industrial manufacturing conditions. This instrument received a 2010 R&D 100 Award.
- Development of time-of-flight (TOF)–based electron-energy analyzers that provide unique advantages over dispersive analyzers. Recently, spin-resolved TOF achieved a world-record energy resolution of better than 20 meV and an overall figure of merit that is 1000 times better than state-of-the-art commercial systems.
- Development of a scattering chamber that has been used both at the ALS for static measurements and at the LCLS for dynamic studies of charge ordering.
- Development of a new generation of both high-resolution and high-throughput spectrographs for photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy. Both of these perform at orders of magnitude higher than previous generations. The high-resolution RIXS spectrograph has the world’s best resolving resolution of 10 meV.
- Achieved a spatial resolution of better than 10 nm from a scanning transmission x-ray microscope.
The SSG has recently developed a new, higher-flux infrared beamline (Beamline 5.4), the meV-resolution beamline (MERLIN), and has begun construction of the MAESTRO beamline that will allow for nano-ARPES studies. Progress has also been made in the development of a coherent scattering chamber for the COSMIC beamline. We plan to submit a proposal for the construction of the Advanced Materials Beamline for Energy Research (AMBER), which will study energy related problems under in-situ and operando conditions.
I am very proud of the work done by the members of the SSG. They play a pivotal role in keeping ALS science at the forefront of its fields and making the ALS an outstanding user facility.